Stem rust of small grain cereals, caused by Puccinia graminis, is a major disease of wheat, barley, and oat. In order to effectively utilize stem rust resistance in the improvement of small grain cereals, it is necessary to monitor the virulence composition and dynamics in the stem rust population. Races of P. graminis from barberry, wheat, barley, and oat were surveyed across the United States during 2003. Aecial infections on barberry were primarily due to P. graminis f. sp. secalis, as inoculations using aeciospores failed to produce infection on wheat and oat. Race QFCS of P. graminis f. sp. tritici was the most common race identified from wheat and barley. Race QFCS has virulence on stem rust resistance genes Sr5, 8a, 9a, 9d, 9g, 10, 17, and 21 that are used for race identification. Race TTTT was identified in 2003. This race possesses virulence to all 16 stem rust resistance genes present in the wheat stem rust differentials and should be targeted in breeding for stem rust resistance. Race QFCN appeared to be a new race in the U.S. stem rust population. Races QCCJ and MCCF were identified, but at low frequencies. Seven races of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were identified from oat, and races NA-27, NA-29, and NA-67 were the predominant races. Race NA-76 was identified for the first time in the United States.