Graft survival among adult African American kidney transplant patients remains low compared to whites, but little information is available for children and adolescents. We examined trends in graft failure among US incident primary kidney transplant patients aged <19 years (n = 13 692), 1980-2004. Trends in 1-year and 2- to 5-year graft failure (for patients whose grafts survived the first year) were analyzed in 5-year intervals. One-year graft failure declined 70% for white and 77% for African American patients over the 25-year period, and 1-year graft failure rates improved at a slightly higher rate for African American compared to white patients (p = 0.02). In contrast, the graft failure rates for years 2-5 declined 53% for white and only 41% for African American patients over the 25 years (p = 0.29). In fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis, the rate of graft failure among African Americans was approximately 2-fold higher than for white patients over the entire study period. Graft survival has improved slightly more for African American than white pediatric patients over the past 25 years. However, graft survival for African American pediatric patients remains poor compared with white patients.
- End-stage renal disease
- Kidney transplantation