Racial disproportionality of students in United States colleges of pharmacy

Hope E. Campbell, Angela M. Hagan, Ana L. Hincapie, Caroline Gaither, Maisha Kelly Freeman, Nicole D. Avant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To describe the disproportionality of racial and ethnic people of color (i.e., minorities) among the student body in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COPs) compared to county-specific United States Census Bureau data. Methods: Data were obtained from national databases and published reports from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. In addition, demographic information for enrollees of minority-serving institutions and predominantly white institutions was obtained and racial disproportionality was assessed to determine the degree of concordance between enrollees and the demographics of people within the county that the school was located. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Results: Compared to the general population in counties where COPs are located, Asians are over-represented while all other students of color are underrepresented. The top schools that have a negative disproportionality rate for Black students included Thomas Jefferson University (−40.49), Wayne State University (−40.13), Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (−39.90), and the University of Tennessee (−39.74).The top five schools that have a negative disproportionality rate of Hispanic students included Loma Linda University (−45.67), California Health Sciences (−45.64), the University of Southern California (−43.79), the University of the Pacific California (−37.95), and Texas Southern University (−36.65). The enrollments within most COPs do not reflect the racial and ethnic diversity of the counties in which they are located. Conclusions: To meet the healthcare needs of an increasingly diverse population, each institution should establish a strategic plan for increasing diversity and evaluating and adopting best practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)524-530
Number of pages7
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.


  • Diversity
  • Minority serving institutions
  • Pharmacy students
  • Racial disproportionality
  • Students of color
  • Underrepresented minority

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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