Radio frequency heating at 9.4T (400.2 MHz): In vivo thermoregulatory temperature response in swine

Devashish Shrivastava, Timothy Hanson, Jeramy Kulesa, Lance DelaBarre, Paul Iaizzo, J. Thomas Vaughan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


In vivo thermoregulatory temperature response to radio frequency (RF) heating at 9.4T was studied by measuring temperatures in nine anesthetized swine. Temperatures were measured in the scalp, brain, and rectum. The RF energy was deposited using a four-loop head coil tuned to 400.2 MHz. Sham RF was delivered to three swine to understand the thermal effects of anesthesia (animal weight = 54.16 kg, SD = 3.08 kg). Continuous wave (CW) RF energy was delivered to the other six animals for 2.5-3.4 h (animal weight = 74.01 ± 26.0 kg, heating duration = 3.05 ± 0.29 h). The whole-head specific absorption rate (SAR) varied between 2.71 W/kg and 3.20 W/kg (SAR = 2.93 ± 0.18 W/kg). Anesthesia caused the brain and rectal temperatures to drop linearly. Altered thermoregulatory response was detected by comparing the difference in the temperature slopes before and after the RF delivery from zero. RF heating statistically significantly altered the rate of cooling down of the animal. The temperature slope changes correlated well with the RF energy per unit head weight and heating duration, and the maximum rectal temperature change during heating in heated animals. The temperature slope changes did not correlate well to the whole-head average SARs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)888-895
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2009


  • 9.4T
  • MR heating
  • MR safety
  • RF heating
  • RF safety
  • Ultra-high-field MRI


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