Introduction: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated in vivo persistence of CD103+CD69+ brain resident memory CD8+ T-cells (bTRM) following viral infection, and that the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway promotes development of these TRM cells within the brain. Although glial cells express low basal levels of PD-L1, its expression is upregulated upon IFN-γ-treatment, and they have been shown to modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. Methods: We performed flow cytometric analysis of cells from co-cultures of mixed glia and CD8+ T-cells obtained from wild type mice to investigate the role of glial cells in the development of bTRM. Results: In this study, we show that interactions between reactive glia and anti-CD3 Ab-stimulated CD8+ T-cells promote development of CD103+CD69+ CD8+ T-cells through engagement of the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. These studies used co-cultures of primary murine glial cells obtained from WT animals along with CD8+ T-cells obtained from either WT or PD-1 KO mice. We found that αCD3 Ab-stimulated CD8+ T-cells from WT animals increased expression of CD103 and CD69 when co-cultured with primary murine glial cells. In contrast, significantly reduced expression of CD103 and CD69 was observed using CD8+ T-cells from PD-1 KO mice. We also observed that reactive glia promoted high levels of CD127, a marker of memory precursor effector cells (MPEC), on CD69+ CD8+ T-cells, which promotes development of TRM cells. Interestingly, results obtained using T-cells from PD-1 KO animals showed significantly reduced expression of CD127 on CD69+ CD8+ cells. Additionally, blocking of glial PD-L1 resulted in decreased expression of CD103, along with reduced CD127 on CD69+ CD8+ T-cells. Conclusions: Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for activated glia in promoting development of bTRM through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway.
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© 2018 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- central nervous system
- glial cells