This article describes the basic principles of ultrasound thermography (UST) and its real-time implementation using graphics processing unit (GPU)-enabled software architecture. In medicine, the term thermography is mostly associated with heat-sensing infrared cameras for recording surface temperature changes. In this article, we use this term to describe the qualitative noninvasive imaging of tissue temperature change using any imaging modality. Examples of these modalities include microwave radiometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), US imaging, and photoacoustic tomography. Of these imaging methods, US and MR are the most widely investigated. Table S1 in »Real-Time Thermography in Medicine» lists some US- and MRbased methods for tissue thermography reported in recent literature.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Emad S. Ebbini acknowledges Dr. Ralf Seip who worked on the very first experiment to validate the approach. National Institutes of Health grant R01 NS098781 provides funding for rtUST in the context of image-guided transcra-nial-focused US.