Exploration of recent advances in nano material plasmonic characterization, application and fundamental characterization is discussed. The synthesis and fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures is based on the highly sensitive nature of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to the chemical and structural characteristics of nanostructure in controlled nano fabrication for creating functional plasmonic materials. Dark Field Resonant Rayleigh Scattering Spectroscopy and Imaging, increases Rayleigh scattering, allowing LSPR to be used for imaging of single nanoparticles with dark-field microscope configuration. The current area of exciting scientific discourse includes the potential utility of plasmonic metamaterials with negative refractive index characteristics with proposed hot spot mechanism thought to be responsible for single molecule SERS. A continued advancement and expansion of the plasmonics field, which is a fertile area of research holding great potential for future materials and devices, is underway.