Recovery code generation for general speculative optimizations

Jin Lin, Wei Chung Hsu, Pen Chung Yew, Roy Dz Ching Ju, Tin Fook Ngai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


A general framework that integrates both control and data speculation using alias profiling and/or compiler heuristic rules has shown to improve CPU2000 performance on Itanium systems. However, speculative optimizations require check instructions and recovery code to ensure correct execution when speculation fails at runtime. How to generate check instructions and their associated recovery code efficiently and effectively is an issue yet to be well studied. It is also, very important that the recovery code generated in the earlier phases integrate gracefully in the later optimization phases. At the very least, it should not hinder later optimizations, thus, ensuring overall performance improvement. This paper proposes a framework that uses an if-block structure to facilitate check instructions and recovery code generation for general speculative optimizations. It allows speculative instructions and their recovery code generated in the early compiler optimization phases to be integrated effectively with the subsequent optimization phases. It also allows multilevel speculation for multilevel pointers and multilevel expression trees to be handled with no additional complexity. The proposed recovery code generation framework has been implemented and evaluated in the Open Research Compiler (ORC).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-89
Number of pages23
JournalACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2006


  • Algorithms
  • Design
  • Experimentation
  • Multi-level data speculation
  • Performance
  • Recovery code
  • Speculative SSA form


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