Prescription opioids abuse and associated deaths are an emerging concern in the USA. Vaccination against prescription opioids may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy. An oxycodone hapten containing a tetraglycine linker at the C6 position (6OXY(Gly)4OH) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has shown early proof-of-efficacy in rodents as a candidate immunogen (6OXY(Gly)4-KLH) for the treatment of oxycodone abuse. In this study, oxycodone-based and hydrocodone-based haptens were conjugated to KLH to generate immunogens that would recognize both oxycodone and hydrocodone. Vaccination with 6OXY(Gly)4-KLH increased drug binding in serum, reduced drug distribution to brain, and blunted analgesia for both oxycodone and hydrocodone. An analogous C6-linked hydrocodone vaccine blocked hydrocodone effects but less so than 6OXY(Gly)4-KLH. C8-Linked hydrocodone immunogens had only limited efficacy. Amide conjugation showed higher haptenation ratios and greater efficacy than thioether conjugation to maleimide activated KLH (mKLH). The 6OXY(Gly)4-KLH vaccine may be used for treatment of prescription opioid abuse.