Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a primary treatment for various inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs). Achieving stable and sustained engraftment while minimizing transplantation-related morbidity and mortality is critical to optimizing outcomes for IMDs. Traditional regimens have used myeloablative approaches, primarily busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BuCy), which is associated with significant regimen-related toxicity. Alternatively, reduced-toxicity regimens, such as busulfan and fludarabine (BuFlu), have been proposed to offer similar efficacy with reduced toxicities. We compared transplantation-related outcomes with BuCy-based and BuFlu-based conditioning in patients with IMDs. We retrospectively analyzed the University of Minnesota's transplantation database for patients with IMDs who underwent HCT using a BuCy (with alemtuzumab) or BuFlu (with antithymocyte globulin) preparative regimen between March 2008 and September 2017. Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and incidence of neutrophil and platelet recovery were determined using standard definitions. Complications such as graft failure, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, hemorrhagic cystitis, and respiratory failure were compared. Graft failure includes primary and secondary aplastic graft failure with and without autologous recovery. The incidence of viral infections post-transplantation in the 2 regimens was also determined. A total of 99 patients underwent HCT for IMDs during the study period. Sixty-four patients received BuCy conditioning, and the other 35 received BuFlu. Hurler syndrome (46%) and adrenoleukodystrophy (43%) were the most common IMDs, and umbilical cord blood was the most common graft source (74%). One-year OS was similar in the 2 groups (81.2% in BuCy versus 85.5% in BuFlu; P = .8), with an EFS of 75% versus 63%, respectively. The 2 groups also had similar incidences of grade III-IV acute GVHD (9% versus 6%; P = .5) and chronic GVHD (9% versus 7%; P = .67). Neutrophil and platelet recovery were similar in the 2 groups, with a significantly shorter duration of hospital stay noted in the BuFlu cohort (median, 21 days versus 34 days; P = .002). The cumulative incidence of graft failure was significantly higher in the BuFlu group (29% versus 14%; P = .08), as was the rate of second HCT (27% versus 3%; P = .001). The incidences of adenoviral infection (14% versus 0%; P = .02) and hemorrhagic cystitis (23% versus 3%; P = .01) were higher in the BuCy group. T cell engraftment occurred significantly sooner with BuCy conditioning until 1-year post-transplantation, but donor myeloid engraftment was similar in the 2 groups. Our data indicate that reduced-toxicity conditioning is associated with lower rates of infection and other transplantation-related complications but is concerning for a higher rate of graft failure in patients with IMDs. Alternate immunosuppressive agents and novel techniques should be considered to minimize toxicities and reduce complications.
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Financial disclosure: The research reported in this publication was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant P30 CA77598 utilizing the Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core shared resource of the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota and by the NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (Grant UL1TR002494 ). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. Conflict of interest statement: There are no conflicts of interest to report.
© 2019 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy
- Conditioning regimen
- Graft failure
- Inherited metabolic disorders