Background: Leukocyte activation results in a rapid increase in adhesion to the extracellular matrix due to the activation of β1 integrin receptors. A role for phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in integrin activation has been proposed, as activation of integrins by many receptors can be blocked by PI 3-kinase inhibitors. One receptor that regulates integrins is the CD28 surface antigen; here, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for CD28-mediated integrin activation. Results: CD28-mediated integrin activation was blocked by mutation of the binding site for the p85 catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain, and by expression of a dominant-negative form of the p85 subunit. Substitution of the Src homology 2 (SH2)-binding motif in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain for the corresponding motif in the CD28-related CTLA-4 surface antigen also blocked integrin activation but did not affect the recruitment and activation of PI 3-kinase. Mutations of the CD28 cytoplasmic domain that blocked integrin activation also impaired the tyrosine phosphorylation of the Cbl adaptor protein and the activation of the PI 3-kinase that was associated with Cbl. This Cbl-associated PI 3-kinase was distinct from the PI 3-kinase that coprecipitated with the CD28 cytoplasmic domain. CD28-mediated activation of β1 integrins was inhibited by expression of a mutant Cbl protein that shows reduced association with PI 3-kinase. Conclusions: Cbl is required for PI-3-kinase-dependent regulation of integrin receptors by CD28. Furthermore, CD28 is coupled to two distinct pools of PI 3-kinase, one directly associated with the CD28 cytoplasmic tail and the other associated with Cbl.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank J. Peller of the University of Minnesota Cancer Center Flow Cytometry Core Facility for expertise in cell sorting and M. Kasuga, W. Ogawa, W. Langdon and S. Shaw for providing reagents. This work was supported by grants to Y.S. from the NIH. Y.S. is the Harry Kay Chair of Cancer Research at the University of Minnesota.
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