This study examined predictors of smoking relapse in the year after the mandatory smoking ban during basic military training (BMT) in the U.S. Air Force. Participants were all smokers who completed BMT from August 1995 to August 1996 and relapsed to smoking in the subsequent year (N = 4,303). Results demonstrated that the vast majority of airmen (69.8%) returned to smoking within 1 month after BMT and that most (90%) were still in training status when they smoked their first cigarette after BMT. Relapsed smokers appeared more motivated to quit smoking at 1-year follow-up compared with when they were in BMT. Individuals making serious quit attempts alter BMT were younger and had greater levels of physical activity, more confidence in quitting, and more favorable perceptions of the BMT ban than individuals not attempting to quit. Based on these findings, recommendations are discussed for improving abstinence rates after BMT.