Background The DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) provides the opportunity to integrate the needed developmental perspective in the assessment of personality pathology. Based on this model, Krueger and colleagues (2012) developed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), which operationalizes the proposed DSM-5 traits. Methods Eighty-five consecutively admitted Italian adolescent inpatients were administered the Italian translation of the PID-5, in order to obtain preliminary data on PID-5 reliability and clinical usefulness in clinically referred adolescents. Results With the possible exception of the PID-5 Suspiciousness scale, all other PID-5 scales evidenced adequate internal consistency reliability (i.e., Cronbach's α values of at least .70, most being greater than .80). Our data seemed to yield at least partial support for the construct validity of the PID-5 scales also in clinical adolescents, at least in terms of patterns of associations with dimensionally assessed DSM-5 Section II PDs that were also included in the DSM-5 AMPD (excluding Antisocial PD because of the participants' minor age). Finally, our data suggested that the clinical usefulness of the PID-5 in adolescent inpatients may extend beyond PDs to profiling adolescents at risk for life-threatening suicide attempts. In particular, PID-5 Depressivity, Anhedonia, and Submissiveness trait scales were significantly associated with adolescents' history of life-threatening suicide attempts, even after controlling for a number of other variables, including mood disorder diagnosis. Discussion As a whole, our study may provide interesting, albeit preliminary data as to the clinical usefulness of PID-5 in the assessment of adolescent inpatients.
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