Reptiles, amphibians, and human Salmonella infection: A population-based, case-control study

Jonathan Mermin, Lori Hutwagner, Duc Vugia, Sue Shallow, Pamela Daily, Jeffrey Bender, Jane Koehler, Ruthanne Marcus, Frederick J. Angulo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

246 Scopus citations

Abstract

To estimate the burden of reptile- and amphibian-associated Salmonella infections, we conducted 2 case-control studies of human salmonellosis occurring during 1996-1997. The studies took place at 5 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance areas: all of Minnesota and Oregon and selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. The first study included 463 patients with serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 7618 population-based controls. The second study involved 38 patients with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella infection and 1429 controls from California only. Patients and controls were interviewed about contact with reptiles and amphibians. Reptile and amphibian contact was associated both with infection with serogroup B or D Salmonella (multivariable odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; P < .009) and with infection with non-serogroup B or D Salmonella (OR, 4.2; CI, 1.8-9.7; P < .001). The population attributable fraction for reptile or amphibian contact was 6% for all sporadic Salmonella infections and 11% among persons <21 years old. These data suggest that reptile and amphibian exposure is associated with ∼74,000 Salmonella infections annually in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S253-S261
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume38
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2004

Bibliographical note

Copyright:
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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