The purpose of this study was to examine energy-conserving practices and consumption from 1987 to 1997 using a human ecosystem framework. Research on energy consumption and practices at the household level has been minimal in recent years. Factors that influence household energy consumption were examined, including climate, demographic characteristics of the households, housing characteristics including weatherization features and appliances, and occupant behaviors. This study was a secondary analysis of data compiled by the Energy Information Administration from the 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Surveys and included only owner-occupied, single-family detached residences. Based on multiple regression analyses, more than 30% of the household energy consumption was accounted for by the variables representing the environments of the human ecosystem.