Resin collection and social immunity in honey bees

Michael Simone, Jay D. Evans, Marla Spivak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Scopus citations


Diverse animals have evolved an ability to collect antimicrobial compounds from the environment as a means of reducing infection risk. Honey bees battle an extensive assemblage of pathogens with both individual and "social" defenses. We determined if the collection of resins, complex plant secretions with diverse antimicrobial properties, acts as a colony-level immune defense by honey bees. Exposure to extracts from two sources of honey bee propolis (a mixture of resins and wax) led to a significantly lowered expression of two honey bee immune-related genes (hymenoptaecin and AmEater in Brazilian and Minnesota propolis, respectively) and to lowered bacterial loads in the Minnesota (MN) propolis treated colonies. Differences in immune expression were also found across age groups (third-instar larvae, 1-day-old and 7-day-old adults) irrespective of resin treatment. The finding that resins within the nest decrease investment in immune function of 7-day-old bees may have implications for colony health and productivity. This is the first direct evidence that the honey bee nest environment affects immune-gene expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3016-3022
Number of pages7
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Apis mellifera
  • Ecological immunity
  • Propolis

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Resin collection and social immunity in honey bees'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this