Risk factors for periodontitis in HIV+ patients

Tamer Alpagot, Nejat Duzgunes, Larry F. Wolff, Aaaron Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for periodontitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods: A total of 152 HIV+ patients were recruited from the CARE clinic at the University of the Pacific School of Dentistry. Clinical measurements (gingival index, plaque index, bleeding index, probing depth, and attachment loss), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and subgingival plaque samples were taken from eight sites of each patient at baseline and 6-month visits. GCF neutrophil elastase was determined by measurement of p-nitroanalide resulting from hydrolysis of an elastase-specific peptide. GCF β-glucuronidase was determined by release of 4-methylumbelliferone from hydrolysis of a specific substrate. A bacterial concentration fluorescence immunoassay was used to detect periodontopathic bacteria in subgingival plaque samples. Results: Viral load, age, smoking pack-years, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, neutrophil elastase, and β-glucuronidase were significantly correlated with clinical measurements (0.0001 < p < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of elastase, β-glucuronidase, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, and A. actinomycetemcomitans were found at progressing sites than in non-progressing sites (0.001 < p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data indicate that age, smoking pack-years, viral load, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, elastase, and β-glucuronidase are risk factors for periodontitis in HIV+ patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-157
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Periodontal Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2004


  • Age
  • Elastase
  • Gingival crevicular fluid
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Periodontitis
  • Periodontopathic bacteria
  • Risk factors
  • Smoking
  • Viral load
  • β-glucuronidase


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