Risk of hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

Tapan Mehta, Mohammed Hussain, Khushboo Sheth, Yuchuan Ding, Louise D. McCullough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background and purpose: Several rheumatologic conditions including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody (APS) syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma are known risk factors for stroke. The risk of hemorrhagic transformation after an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in these patients is not known. Methods: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data between 2010 and 2012 with ICD 9 diagnostic codes for AIS. The primary outcome was the development of hemorrhagic transformation. Multivariate predictors for hemorrhagic transformation were identified with a logistic regression model. Using SAS 9.2, Survey procedures were used to accommodate for hierarchical two stage cluster design of NIS. Results: APS (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.14–5.81, p = 0.0228) independently predicted risk of hemorrhagic transformation in multivariate regression analysis. Similarly, in multivariate regression models for the outcome variables of total charges of the hospitalization and length of stay (LOS), patients with APS had the highest charges ($56,286, p = 0.0228) and LOS (3.87 days, p = 0.0164) compared to other co-variates. Univariate analysis showed increased mortality in the APS compared to the non-APS group (11.68% vs. 7.16%, p = 0.0024). Conclusion: APS is an independent risk factor for hemorrhagic transformation in both thrombolytic and non-thrombolytic treated patients. APS is also associated with longer length and cost of hospital stay. Further research is warranted to identify the unique risk factors in these patients to identify strategies to reduce the risk of hemorrhagic transformation in this subgroup of the population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-483
Number of pages7
JournalNeurological Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 3 2017


  • Hemorrhagic transformation
  • antiphospholipid antibody
  • ischemic stroke

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