Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST libraries, genetic and physical maps, QTLs, and whole genome sequences. The potential of genomics approaches to enhance crop improvement, particularly through marker-assisted breeding (MAB), is enormous, but unfulfilled. The U.S. Rosaceae genomics, genetics, and breeding community, with strong international involvement, has united behind the goal of translational genomics and collaborated on the development of large-scale USDA grant proposals. RosBREED, funded for four years from September 2009, incorporates eight teams (Breeding, Socio- Economics, Pedigree-Based Analysis, Breeding Information Management System, Genomics, Genotyping, MAB Pipeline, and Extension) in a transdisciplinary framework that involves significant educational and outreach activities and stakeholder participation. Objectives are to (1) enhance the likelihood of new cultivar adoption, enlarge market potential, and increase consumption of Rosaceae fruits with socio-economics knowledge objectively used in breeding decisions; (2) establish a sustainable technical infrastructure for an efficient MAB Pipeline in Rosaceae; (3) integrate breeding and genomics resources with a standardized breeding information management system incorporating Pedigree-Based Analysis; (4) implement MAB in core RosBREED breeding programs with a common focus on fruit quality traits; and (5) enhance sustainability of cultivar development with MAB technology transfer to current and future U.S. Rosaceae breeders and engagement of key stakeholder groups. Coordinated action is now required to make RosBREED a reality and fulfill the promise of genomics.