Low and dynamic duty cycles cause that the E2E delay for packet delivery is more critical in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSNs). The traditional routing protocols are constrained by the in-technology communication paradigm, where Wi-Fi devices can talk to the Wi-Fi devices only, and so on for ZigBee or wireless technology. This is, however, not necessary by recent advances in cross-technology communication (CTC). The CTC enables ZigBee nodes to be coordinated by a Wi-Fi node without any hardware changes or gateway equipment, which sheds the light on more efficient routing protocols design. In this paper, we introduce a new routing protocol based on a CTC technique called RowBee. RowBee takes the advantages of coordination from the Wi-Fi node to assist the ZigBee nodes for establishing routing paths and allows nodes to choose their duty cycles freely with finer duty-cycle granularity. A simple yet effective method is employed so that the ZigBee nodes are coordinately waked up simultaneously according to the beacons broadcasted by the Wi-Fi nodes. We implement RowBee based on a USRP-N210 and MICAz hybrid platform, and the experimental results show that RowBee can reduce the E2E delay greatly.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Fund of China under Grant 31670554, in part by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China under Grant BK20161527, in part by the project funded by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant 2018T110505 and Grant 2017M611828, and in part by the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
© 2013 IEEE.
- Wireless sensor networks
- cross-technology communication
- energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks
- routing protocol