Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a frequently encountered problem in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Its pathophysiology is mainly due to hyperphosphatemia and vitamin D deficiency and resistance. This condition has a high impact on the mortality and morbidity of dialysis patients. Early diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism is crucial in the management of patients with CKD. The treatment remains a challenge for patients and their clinicians. It should include a combination of dietary phosphorus restriction, phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics.