Sedimentary, geochemical and hydrological history of Lake Kinneret during the past 28,000 years

Lilach Lev, Mordechai Stein, Emi Ito, Noa Fruchter, Zvi Ben-Avraham, Ahuva Almogi-Labin

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4 Scopus citations

Abstract

The sedimentary, geochemical and hydrological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) is reconstructed for the past ∼28 kyrs, based on three sedimentary cores drilled at the lake and a trench dug at the shore of the prehistorical Ohalo–II site. During the past 28 kyrs either laminated or massive fine-grained sediments were deposited in the lake comprising primary calcites and fine-grain detritus. Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and δ 18 O values of live and fossil ostracod shells (Cyprideis torosa) and primary calcites together with XRD, grain-size, and carbonate content analyses indicate contribution of the following types of waters to the lake: (1) Jordan River; (2) Regional runoff; and (3) Ca-chloride brines (currently comprises the Tiberias Spa brine). During the last glacial period (∼28-24 ka) the lake rose to its highest stand of ∼170 m below sea level (bsl), expanding over the Kinnarot Basin and converging with the southern hypersaline Lake Lisan. At that time, waters were mainly supplied to the lake by the Jordan River and regional runoff with enhanced contribution of the Dead Sea Ca-chloride brine. Primary calcites were precipitated from the lake's solution forming sequences of laminated sediments on the lake's floor. At ∼24-22 ka (coinciding with Heinrich event H2 at the North Atlantic) the lake retreated below the modern level (of ∼214 m bsl), depositing mainly flood-related sediments at its margins. The lake slightly rose during the Younger Dryas and subsequently declined towards the modern level with decreasing contributions of the Jordan River waters, brines and regional runoff, reflecting a continuous aridification of the region during the Holocene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-128
Number of pages15
JournalQuaternary Science Reviews
Volume209
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We wish to thank N. Tepelyakov, I. Segal, O. Yoffe, O. Berlin, T. Zilberman, N. Teutsch and D. Stiber (Geochemistry lab) and M. Kitin (Micropaleontology lab), all from the Geological Survey of Israel. Dr. I. Stefanova from the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA is warmly thanked for her help in applying the BACON software. We thank the anonymous reviewers for very thoughtful and constructive reviews, and the editorial handling of Ana Moreno, all of which greatly improved this manuscript. This research was supported by USA–Israel Bin ational Science Foundation BSF grant 2010347 (to AA and EI) and Israel Science Foundation ISF grant 1663/16 (to MS and AA).

Funding Information:
We wish to thank N. Tepelyakov, I. Segal, O. Yoffe, O. Berlin, T. Zilberman, N. Teutsch and D. Stiber (Geochemistry lab) and M. Kitin (Micropaleontology lab), all from the Geological Survey of Israel. Dr. I. Stefanova from the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA is warmly thanked for her help in applying the BACON software. We thank the anonymous reviewers for very thoughtful and constructive reviews, and the editorial handling of Ana Moreno, all of which greatly improved this manuscript. This research was supported by USA–Israel Binational Science Foundation BSF grant 2010347(to AA and EI) and Israel Science Foundation ISF grant 1663/16(to MS and AA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • East Mediterranean
  • Geochemistry
  • Lake Kinneret
  • Late Quaternary
  • Levant
  • Ostracods
  • Paleo-limnology
  • Sr and O isotopes

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