Five monkeys were trained to self-administer orally-delivered phencyclidine (0.25 mg/ml) and water under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 (FR 16) schedules during daily sessions that lasted 3 h. An 8% (w/v) ethanol solution was substituted for water and then the following series of phencyclidine concentrations was presented: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0 (water), and 0.25 mg/ml (retest). Next, the phencyclidine concentration was held constant (0.25 mg/ml), and the ethanol concentration was varied as follows: 8, 16, 32, 1, 2, 4, 0 (water), and 8% w/v (retest). Each drug concentration series was tested again with water concurrently available. At low phencyclidine concentrations the ethanol solution was preferred, but phencyclidine deliveries exceeded ethanol deliveries at higher phencyclidine concentrations. Ethanol-maintained responding was increased by the lower phencyclidine concentrations (0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/ml), and it was slightly suppressed by the highest concentration (1 mg/ml). Phencyclidine was preferred to all concentrations of ethanol except 4%. Ethanol (8%) suppressed phencyclidine-maintained behavior at lower concentrations, but it had no effect at higher phencyclidine concentrations. The ethanol concentration-response functions were nearly identical whether phencyclidine (0.25 mg/ml) or water was concurrently present. Drug preferences were usually evident within the first 10 min of the session, suggesting they were based on olfaction, taste, or other immediate postingestional effects. These results show that two orally-delivered drugs may be concurrently self-administered under independently-operating FR schedules. Behavior maintained by one drug depends on the magnitude of the concurrently available, alternative reinforcing drug.
- Concurrent fixed-ratio schedules
- Lip contact response
- Oral route
- Rhesus monkeys