Self-efficacy is a known predictor for behavior change. Little is known about the association of self-efficacy with walking ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The objective of this study was to determine the association of self-efficacy with walking ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus and PAD. In this cross-sectional study, baseline data were analyzed from individuals with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 and PAD who were enrolled in a walking intervention clinical trial. As part of the baseline assessment, individuals completed questionnaires to ascertain self-efficacy and co-existing illnesses. In addition, participants completed a treadmill walking test and a 6-minute walking test. A total of 145 individuals were enrolled (mean age 66.5 ± 10.1 years) with diabetes mellitus and PAD; 45 (31%) were women. The mean ankle-bracial index was 0.70 (range - 0.18-2.20) and the mean glycosylated hemoglobin value was 7.1 (SD 1.2). The mean distance walked, as per the treadmill walking test, was 418 meters (SD 258) and the mean distance walked, as per the 6-minute walking test, was 272 meters (SD 74). As measured by the treadmill walking test and the 6-minute walking test, self-efficacy was associated with treadmill walking distance, coefficient 33.0 (95% CI 11.0, 55.1; p = 0.0036), and the 6-minute walking test, coefficient 10.4 (95% CI 3.0, 17.7; p = 0.0061), after adjusting for comorbidities, social habits, and disease severity. In conclusion, self-efficacy, a psychosocial mediator for behavior change, was significantly associated with walking ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus and PAD. Future studies should determine the benefits of targeting self-efficacy to improve adherence to walking therapy in patients with PAD.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Peripheral arterial disease