The self-concept has emerged as an important component of organizational paradigms. This article reviews the conceptual meanings of self-esteem and self-efficacy, clarifies the relationship between the two perceptions of the self, and discusses how an understanding of them can lead to better organization management. An empirical examination explored the intervening role of organization-based self-esteem in the relationship between generalized self-efficacy and explored two outcomes - employees' job performance and job-related affect (job satisfaction). Organization-based self-esteem emerged as the stronger predictor of ratings of performance and employee satisfaction, and it appears to act as a mediator in the relationship between generalized self-efficacy and these employee responses. The managerial implications of these results are discussed.