Sepsis results in a deluge of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, leading to lymphopenia and chronic immunoparalysis. Sepsis-induced long-lasting immunoparalysis is defined, in part, by impaired CD4 and CD8 αβ T cell responses in the postseptic environment. The dysfunction in T cell immunity affects naive, effector, and memory T cells and is not restricted to classical αβ T cells. Although sepsis-induced severe and transient lymphopenia is a contributory factor to diminished T cell immunity, T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors/ mechanisms also contribute to impaired T cell function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how sepsis quantitatively and qualitatively impairs CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity of classical and nonclassical T cell subsets and discuss current therapeutic approaches being developed to boost the recovery of T cell immunity postsepsis induction.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.