Seroprevalence and risk factors for lumpy skin disease virus seropositivity in cattle in Uganda

Sylvester Ochwo, Kimberly VanderWaal, Anna Munsey, Joseph Nkamwesiga, Christian Ndekezi, Elda Auma, Frank N. Mwiine

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1 Scopus citations


Background: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a transboundary cattle disease caused by a Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. In Uganda, documented information on the epidemiology of the disease is rare and there is no nationwide control plan, yet LSD is endemic. This study set out to investigate the seroprevalence of lumpy skin disease and determine the risk factors for LSD seropositivity, by carrying out a cross-sectional study in 21 districts of Uganda. Results: A total of 2,263 sera samples were collected from 65 cattle herds and an indirect ELISA was used to screen for lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) antibodies. We used univariable and multivariable mixed effect logistic regression models to identify risk factors for LSD seropositivity. The overall animal and herd-level seroprevalences were 8.7% (95% CI: 7.0-9.3) and 72.3% (95% CI: 70.0-80.3), respectively. Animal-level seroprevalence in Central region (OR = 2.13, p = 0.05, 95% CI: 1.10-4.64) was significantly different from the Northern region (Reference) and Western region (OR = 0.84, p = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.39-1.81). Management type, sex, age, mean annual precipitation > 1000 mm, and drinking from communal water sources were statistically significant risk factors for occurrence of anti-LSDV antibodies in cattle. Breed, region, herd size, contact with buffalo and other wildlife and introduction of new cattle did not have a statistically significant association with being positive for LSDV. Conclusion: We report a high herd-level LSDV seroprevalence in Uganda with a moderate animal-level seroprevalence. Cattle with the highest risk of LSD infection in Uganda are those in fenced farms, females > 25 months old, in an area with a mean annual rainfall > 1000 mm, and drinking from a communal water source.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number236
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 8 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the University Of Minnesota Academic Health Center and they had no role in the design and execution of the study as well as the decision to publish this manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s).


  • Lumpy skin disease
  • Risk factors
  • Seroprevalence
  • Uganda


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