Investigation of the aerial parts of two Spanish members of the Asteriscus alliance, Asteriscus graveolens subsp. stenophyllus and Asteriscus schultzii, afforded four new sesquiterpene lactones containing a humulene skeleton (1-4) and one new sesquiterpene lactone of the asteriscanolide type (5). Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of the HRMS and from 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic studies. Both species showed different profiles of sesquiterpenoid constituents. A. schultzii did not show humulene or asteriscane sesquiterpenes, suggesting a resemblance to the genus Pallenis, another member of the Asteriscus alliance. A literature review on chemical isolates from the Asteriscus alliance supported the placement of A. schultzii in the genus Pallenis. The isolated components (1-5) were assessed for cytotoxicity against the HL-60 and MOLT-3 leukemia cell lines, with compound 1 showing activity in both biological assays (IC50 value range 4.1-5.4 M).