Sewage effluent: Likely source of Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 infection in a commercial chicken layer flock in southern California

H. Kinde, D. H. Read, A. Ardans, R. E. Breitmeyer, D. Willoughby, H. E. Little, D. Kerr, R. Gireesh, K. V. Nagaraja

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Abstract

Following the diagnosis of Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4, infection in a commercial layer flock in southern California, effluent from a nearby sewer treatment plant was investigated as a potential source of infection. Between July 1994 and March 1995, 68 Salmonella isolations, comprising 27 serotypes, were made from the inflow (raw sewage) and effluent (treated sewage). Thirty-nine of 68 (57%) isolations yielded six serotypes, which consisted of S. enteritidis 12% (8/68), S. cerro 10% (7/68), S. typhimurium 7.4% (5/68), S. tennessee 7.4% (5/68), S. give 7.4% (5/68), S. mbandaka 7.4% (5/68), and S. panama 6% (4/68). The remaining 43% (29/68) isolations were represented by 21 serotypes. Seventeen S. enteritidis isolates originating front the effluent (creek water), resident feral animals (rodents, stray cats, skunks), and chickens (organs, eggs) of the affected flock were subjected to plasmid profile and restriction endonuclease analysis. Twelve of the 17 isolates had identical plasmid profile and restriction digestion patterns. Two of 17 isolates showed similar patterns but both differed from the rest; and 1 of 17 did not yield plasmids. Two other isolates were found to be different from each other and from the rest of the group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)672-676
Number of pages5
JournalAvian diseases
Volume40
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1996

Keywords

  • S. enteritidis
  • layer flock
  • phage type 4
  • sewage effluent

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