Oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds) are increasingly recognized as vectors for immunotherapy in the treatment of various solid tumors. The myriads of advantages of using adenovirus include targeted specificity upon infection and selective replication, which lead to localized viral burst, exponential spread of OAds, and antitumor effect. OAds can also induce a strong immune reaction due to the massive release of tumor antigens upon cytolysis and the presence of viral antigens. This review will highlight recent advances in adenoviral vectors expressing immunostimulatory effectors, such as GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor), interferon-α, interleukin-12, and CD40L.We will also discuss the combination of OAds with other immunotherapeutic strategies and describe the current understanding of how adenoviral vectors interact with the immune system to eliminate cancer cells.
- GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor)
- Oncolytic adenovirus
- Oncolytic virotherapy