Simulation of graphite sublimation and oxidation under re-entry conditions

James A. Keenan, Graham V. Candler

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The process for thermo-chemical ablation is modeled for a graphite heat-shield under Earth re-entry conditions. The re-entry flowfield is permitted to be in a state of thermo-chemical nonequilibrium for all chemical species. The heat conduction into the graphite heat-shield is modeled in multiple dimensions. To couple the flowfield and heat-shield, the appropriate boundary conditions of a surface mass balance and a surface energy balance are used. Chemical nonequilibrium effects are included in these surface balances. The ablation mechanism allows both oxidation and sublimation to occur. Steady-state results are presented for sphere-cone geometries at altitudes ranging from 40 km to 80 km. The freestream velocity is taken as 8 km/s for all cases. Two geometries with nose radii of 0.0127 m and 0.127 m and cone half-angles of 9° are considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - 1994
EventAIAA/ASME 6th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, 1994 - Colorado Springs, United States
Duration: Jun 20 1994Jun 23 1994


OtherAIAA/ASME 6th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, 1994
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityColorado Springs

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported in part by the following grants: NASA-Langley Grant NCC1-140 and NASA Grant NAGW-1331 to the Mars Miseion Research Center at North Carolina State University. Computer time was provided by the North Carolina Supercomputing Center. Special thanka are extended to Dr. Ken Sutton of NASA-Langley?s Aerothermodynamiea Branch for hi help on nonequilibrium evaporation of solids.

Publisher Copyright:
© 1994 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.


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