This paper reports the production of high quality copper indium diselenide thin films using pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from a powder target. As-grown thin films consisted of pin-hole free, densely packed grains. X-ray diffraction showed that films were highly orientated in the (112) and/or (204)/(220) direction with no secondary phases present. The most surprising and exciting outcome of this study was that the as-grown films were of near stoichiometric composition, almost independent of the composition of the starting material. No additional steps or substrate heating were necessary to incorporate selenium and create single phase CuInSe2. Electrical properties obtained by hot point probe and four point probe gave values of low resistivity and showed that the films were all p-type. The physical and structural properties of these films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Resistivity measurements were carried out using the four point probe and hot probe methods. The single step deposition process can cut down the cost of the complex multi step processes involved in the traditional vacuum based deposition techniques.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Joule Centre for the funding of this project. Sincere thanks are due to the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) for the award of a research fellowship to Sreejith Karthikeyan under the ORSAS programme. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. J. Hinks, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford for his expert guidance in preparing the CIS crystals.
- Copper indium diselenide
- Energy dispersive X-ray analysis
- Powder target
- Pused DC magnetron sputtering
- Solar Cells
- Thin films
- X-ray diffraction