Study Objectives: Determine the associations of sleep disturbances with hospitalization risk among older women. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven women (mean age 83.6 years) participating in Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Year 16 (Y16) examination (2002-2004) linked with Medicare and/or HMO claims. At Y16 examination, sleep/wake parameters were measured by actigraphy (total sleep time [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], sleep latency [SL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) and subjective sleep measures (sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index] and daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale]) were assessed by questionnaire. Measures except TST were dichotomized based on clinical thresholds. Incident hospitalizations were determined from claims data. Results: Nine hundred and seventy-six women (53%) had ≥1 hospitalization in the 3 years after the Year 16 examination. Reduced SE (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-3.39), prolonged SL (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.11-1.78), greater WASO (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.28-1.93), shorter TST (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.42-2.77) and poorer sleep quality (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.65) were each associated with a higher age and site-adjusted odds of hospitalization; associations were attenuated after multivariable adjustment for traditional prognostic factors with the OR for reduced SE (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.08-2.38) and shorter TST (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.12-2.37) remaining significant. Among women who were hospitalized, greater WASO (rate ratio [RR] = 1.20, 95% CI 1.04-1.37) and poorer sleep quality (RR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.35) were each associated with a greater age and site-adjusted RR of inpatient days, but associations did not persist after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Older women with sleep disturbances have an increased risk of hospitalization partially attributable to demographics, poorer health status, and comorbidities.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) provides support under the following grant numbers: R01 AG005407, R01 AR35582, R01 AR35583, R01 AR35584, R01 AG005394, R01 AG027574, and R01 AG027576. This manuscript is the result of work supported with resources and use of facilities of the Minneapolis VA Health Care System. The contents do not represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States Government.
- Sleep disturbances
- Sleep quality