Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder that is frequently treated surgically. Few reports in the literature give objective reports of the effect of such treatment on polysomnographic parameters before and after treatment, although symptomatic improvement is common. This article reviews total sleep time (TST) spent in apnea, number of apneic episodes per hour or sleep apnea index (SAI), and oxygen desaturations in such patients treated with tracheostomy, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPP), and combinations of these. Although improvement is noted in these parameters after UPP, this is not as impressive as some reports in the literature indicate. Our suggested indications for this type of surgery are discussed.