Objectives: The Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) is a multi-dimensional smoking dependence measure that assesses primary dependence motives (PDM; e.g., core dependence marked by tolerance, craving) and secondary dependence motives (SDM; e.g., auxiliary dependence motives such as cognitive enhancement, weight control). However, the relationship between PDM, SDM, and smoking level remains unclear. Thus, we examined these scales across smoking levels in a diverse sample of smokers. Methods: Participants were 2376 African American, Latino, and non-Hispanic White smokers recruited using an online panel research company. The sample included 297 native nondaily smokers (never smoked daily), 297 converted nondaily smoker (previously smoked daily for ≥. six months), 578 light daily smokers (≤. 10 cigarettes per day [cpd]), and 597 moderate to heavy daily smokers (>. 10. cpd). Methods: Results of a multinomial logistic regression showed that for each unit increase in SDM, after controlling for PDM, the odds of being a native nondaily, converted nondaily or light smoker vs. moderate to heavy smoker increased by 29% to 56% (ps. <. 0.001). In the model, higher PDM scores were associated with lower odds of being a native nondaily, converted nondaily, or light smoker vs. a moderate to heavy daily smoker (ps. <. 0.001). Conclusion: Nondaily and light smokers endorse higher secondary dependence motives relative to their primary dependence motives. Smoking cessation trials for nondaily and light smokers might address these secondary motives within the context of counseling intervention to enhance abstinence.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for this research was provided by Pfizer's Global Research Awards for Nicotine Dependence (to J. S. Ahluwalia; WS1895365 ). Dr. Jasjit S. Ahluwalia is also supported in part by the National Institute for Minority Health Disparities (NCMHD/NIH — 1P60MD003422 ). Neither funding source had any role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing of the manuscript, or decision to submit the paper for publication.
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
- Daily smoking
- Nondaily smoking
- Smoking dependence