Introduction: A nicotine-reduction policy could have major benefits for smokers with serious mental illness (SMI). However, potential unintended consequences, such as compensatory smoking, should be considered to ensure that such a policy does not negatively affect this population. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the impact of smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes for 6 weeks on smoking topography characteristics, indicators of compensatory smoking, among smokers with SMI. Aims and Methods: After a baseline usual brand smoking phase, smokers with SMI (N = 58) were randomly assigned under double-blind conditions to receive either VLNC (0.4 mg nicotine per g tobacco) or normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg nicotine per g tobacco) research cigarettes for 6 weeks. During two study visits scheduled 6 weeks apart, participants smoked either their usual brand (baseline) or assigned study cigarettes (postrandomization) through a handheld smoking topography device. Univariate analysis of variance compared smoking topography indices with cigarette condition (VLNC vs. NNC) as the between-subjects factor with corresponding baseline topography results included as covariates. Results: At week 6, participants in the VLNC condition smoked fewer puffs per cigarette and had shorter interpuff intervals compared to participants in the NNC condition (ps <. 05). There were no differences between research cigarette conditions at week 6 for cigarette volume, puff volume, puff duration, peak flow rate, or carbon monoxide boost. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with acute VLNC cigarette topography studies and indicate that a nicotine-reduction policy is unlikely to lead to compensation among smokers with SMI. Implications: Given the high smoking rates among people with SMI, understanding how a nicotine-reduction policy may affect this population is critically important. When considering the smoking topography results as a whole, smokers with SMI did not engage in compensatory smoking behavior when using VLNC cigarettes during a 6-week trial. Study findings suggest that compensatory smoking is not likely to occur among smokers with SMI if nicotine content is lowered to minimally addictive levels.