Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves resuscitation rates after prolonged untreated cardiac arrest in two porcine models

Jason C. Schultz, Nicolas D Segal, Emily Caldwell, James Kolbeck, Scott McKnite, Nick Lebedoff, Menekhem Zviman, Tom P. Aufderheide, Demetris Yannopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation consists of active compression-decompression, an impedance threshold device, abdominal binding, and large intravenous doses of sodium nitroprusside. We hypothesize that sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation will significantly increase carotid blood flow and return of spontaneous circulation compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. Design: Prospective randomized animal study. Setting: Hennepin County Medical Center Animal Laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Forty Yorkshire female farm-bred pigs weighing 32 ± 2 kg. Interventions: In protocol A, 24 isoflurane- anesthetized pigs underwent 15 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation and were subsequently randomized to receive standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 6), active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device (n = 6), or sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 12) for up to 15 mins. First defibrillation was attempted at minute 6 of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In protocol B, a separate group of 16 pigs underwent 10 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by 3 mins of chest compression only cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed by countershock-induced pulseless electrical activity, after which animals were randomized to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 8) or sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 8). Measurements and Main Results: The primary end point was carotid blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary end points included end-tidal CO 2 as well as coronary and cerebral perfusion pressure. After prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation, sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation demonstrated superior rates of return of spontaneous circulation when compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device (12 of 12, 0 of 6, and 0 of 6 respectively, p < .01). In animals with pulseless electrical activity, sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased return of spontaneous circulation rates when compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In both groups, carotid blood flow, coronary perfusion pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and end-tidal CO 2 were increased with sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: In pigs, sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation significantly increased return of spontaneous circulation rates, as well as carotid blood flow and end-tidal CO 2, when compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation or active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation + impedance threshold device.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2705-2710
Number of pages6
JournalCritical care medicine
Volume39
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011

Keywords

  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • carotid blood flow
  • neurological function
  • resuscitation rates
  • vasodilators

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