Several in vitro and animal studies have showed that inflammatory markers play a role in bone remodeling and pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Additionally, some human longitudinal studies showed suggestive associations between elevated inflammatory markers and increased risk of nontraumatic fractures. We examined several inflammatory markers and multiple fracture types in a single study of older individuals with extensive follow-up. We assessed the association of four inflammatory markers with the risk of incident hip fractures among 5265 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and a composite endpoint of incident fractures of the hip, pelvis, humerus, or proximal forearm in 4477 participants. Among CHS participants followed between 1992 and 2009, we observed 480 incident hip fractures during a median follow-up of 11 years. In the composite fracture analysis cohort of 4477 participants, we observed 711 fractures during a median follow-up of 7 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hip fracture associated with doubling of IL-6 were HR 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.30) overall and HR 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.35) in women. We also observed a positive association between each unit increase in white blood cell (WBC) count and risk of hip fracture: HR 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06) overall and HR 1.06 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.20) in women. We observed no significant associations between any of the four inflammatory markers and a composite fracture endpoint. Our findings suggest that chronic inflammatory and immune processes may be related to higher rates of incident hip fractures.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
All authors state that they have no conflicts of interest. DS is an employee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This work represents the opinions of the authors and not necessarily that of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; BMP reports service on the DSMB of a clinical trial funded by Zoll LifeCor and service on the Steering Committee of the Yale Open Data Access Project funded by Johnson & Johnson; LHC and SH received grants from NHLBI (NIH); MB received grants from General Electric. All other authors state that they have no conflicts of interest.
This research was supported by contracts HHSN268201200036C, HHSN268200800007C, N01HC55222, N01HC85079, N01HC85080, N01HC85081, N01HC85082, N01HC85083, N01HC85086, and grants U01HL080295 and U01HL130114 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), with additional contribution from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Additional support was provided by R01AG023629 from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). A full list of principal CHS investigators and institutions can be found at CHS-NHLBI.org. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. This work represents the opinions of the authors and not necessarily that of the US Food and Drug Administration.
- FRACTURE RISK ASSESSMENT
- GENERAL POPULATION STUDIES