Sp3 inhibits Sp1-mediated activation of the cardiac troponin T promoter and is downregulated during pathological cardiac hypertrophy in vivo

Anthony Azakie, Jeffrey R. Fineman, Youping He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Combinatorial interactions between cis elements and trans-acting factors are required for regulation of cardiac gene expression during normal cardiac development and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Sp factors bind GC boxes and are implicated in recruitment and assembly of the basal transcriptional complex. In this study, we show that the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter contains a GC box that is necessary for basal and cAMP-mediated activity of cTnT promoter constructs transfected in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Cardiac nuclear proteins bind the cTnT GC box in a sequence-specific fashion and consist of Sp1, Sp2, and Sp3 protein factors. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, Sp1 binds the cTnT promoter "in vivo." Cotransfected Sp1 trans-activates the cTnT promoter in cardiomyocytes in culture. Sp3 represses Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation of the cTnT gene in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Sp3 repression of Sp1-mediated cTnT promoter activation is dose dependent, inferring a mechanism of competitive binding/inhibition. To evaluate the role of Sp factors in cardiac gene expression in vivo, we have established a clinically relevant animal model of pathological cardiac hypertrophy where the fetal cardiac program is activated. In this animal model, cardiac hypertrophy results from increased left-right shunting, volume loading of the left ventricle, and pressure loading of the right ventricle. Sp1 expression is increased in all four hypertrophied cardiac chambers, whereas Sp3 expression is diminished. This observation is consistent with the in vitro activating function of Sp1 and inhibitory effects of Sp3 on activity of cTnT promoter constructs. Sp factor levels are modulated during the hypertrophic cardiac program in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H600-H611
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume291
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2006

Keywords

  • Cardiac differentiation
  • Cardiac muscle hypertrophy
  • Cell specification
  • Promoter function
  • Transcription factors

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