We demonstrate the optical readout of ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in a bulk diamond sample via spin-to-charge conversion. A high power 594 nm laser is utilized to selectively ionize these paramagnetic defects in the mS=0 spin state with a contrast of up to 12%. In comparison to the conventional 520 nm spin readout, the spin-to-charge-conversion-based readout provides a higher signal-to-noise ratio, with tenfold sensing measurement speedup for millisecond long pulse sequences. This level of performance was achieved for an NV- ionization of only 25%, limited by the ionization and readout laser powers. These observations pave the way to a range of high-sensitivity metrology applications where the use of NV- ensembles in bulk diamond has proven useful, including sensing and imaging of target materials overlaid on the diamond surface.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
All authors acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation through grants NSF-1619896 and NSF-1547830 and from Research Corporation for Science Advancement through a FRED Award.
© 2018 Author(s).