Standard methods for American foulbrood research

Dirk C. De Graaf, Adriana M. Alippi, Karina Antúnez, Katherine A. Aronstein, Giles Budge, Dieter De Koker, Lina De Smet, Douglas W. Dingman, Jay D. Evans, Leonard J. Foster, Anne Fünfhaus, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez, Aleš Gregorc, Hannelie Human, K. Daniel Murray, Bach Kim Nguyen, Lena Poppinga, Marla Spivak, Dennis Van Engelsdorp, Selwyn WilkinsElke Genersch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


American foulbrood is one of the most devastating diseases of the honey bee. It is caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The recent updated genome assembly and annotation for this pathogen now permits in-depth molecular studies. In this paper, selected techniques and protocols for American foulbrood research are provided, mostly in a recipe-like format that permits easy implementation in the laboratory. Topics covered include: working with Paenibacillus larvae, basic microbiological techniques, experimental infection, and "'omics" and other sophisticated techniques. Further, this chapter covers other technical information including biosafety measures to guarantee the safe handling of this pathogen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Apicultural Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
1Ghent University, Laboratory of Zoophysiology, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. 2Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Centro de Investigaciones de Fitopatología, calles 60 y 118, c.c. 31, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. 3Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Department of Microbiology, Avda. Italia 3318, 11600 Montevideo, Uruguay. 4USDA-ARS, Honey Bee Research Unit, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Center, 2413 E. Hwy 83, 78596 Weslaco TX, USA. 5National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, YO41 1LZ York, UK. 6The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, New Haven CT 06504, USA. 7USDA-ARS, Bee Research Lab, BARC-E Bldg 476, Beltsville MD 20705, USA. 8University of British Columbia, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 2125 East Mall, V6T 1Z4 Vancouver BC, Canada. 9Institute for Bee Research, Friedrich-Engels-Str. 32, 16540 Hohen Neuendorf, Germany. 10Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. 11University of Pretoria, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Pretoria, South Africa. 12South Texas College, Biology Department, 400 N. Border, 78596 Weslaco TX, USA. 13Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Entomologie fonctionnelle & évolutive, Passage des Déportés 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium. 14University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology, 219 Hodson Hall, 1980 Folwell Ave., 55108 St. Paul MN, USA. 15University of Maryland, Department of Entomology, 3136 Plant Sciences, College Park, MD 20742, USA


  • American foulbrood
  • Brood
  • Disease
  • Honey bee
  • Paenibacillus larvae
  • Pathogen
  • Technique

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