The terms generation, transmission, and distribution are the categories under which operations and planning of electric power systems have traditionally been discussed. Notable by their absence are the facilities in which the electricity that is generated, transmitted, and distributed is consumed-homes, buildings, and industrial plants. This exclusion was logical when generation was centralized and dispatchable; the supplydemand balance could be maintained through actions at generators. Variations in consumption, whether predictable in the short or long term or the result of unforeseen contingencies, could be addressed by increasing or decreasing kilowatts produced.
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new plant construction. The initial project was supported by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, the China Electric Power Research Insti- tute, and the Tianjin Econ. Technologi- cal Development Area. Other partners included AECOM, an electrical engi- neering firm and the OpenADR Alli- ance in an advisory capacity. According to the Paulson Institute (2014), the outcome of the pilot proj- ect has exceeded expectations (Samad et al., 2016). Industrial load reduction was 7.7% during full production periods; DR shed capacity increased more than 30% in other periods. The commercial buildings were able to consistently shed 15%–20% of load (see “Automated Demand Response and OpenADR Across Consumer Sectors”).
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