Indomethacin (IN) was administered to untreated or to cyclophosphamide (CY) treated C57B1/6 mice to study the roles of prostaglandins in regulating hematopoiesis. The following hematopoietic parameters were quantitated: 1) peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) count; 2) total nucleated cells per spleen; 3) total nucleated cells per femur; and 4) spleen weight. Assays were performed in vitro to measure the number of colony forming units (CFU) present in the bone marrow and spleen. Untreated mice administered IN had a transient rise in their PBL count. These animals also developed splenomegaly and had an increased number of nucleated cells in their spleen. All CY treated mice had a marked decrease in PBL count, spleen cellularity, bone marrow cellularity, and spleen size during the first 5 days after CY treatment. These observations were followed by hematopoietic recovery over the next 10 days. Cyclophosphamide treated mice exhibited a more rapid hematopoietic recovery when treated with IN than without IN treatment. Analysis of the CFU capacity of bone marrow and spleen cells in soft agar showed a larger number of CFU in the bone marrow and spleen of IN treated mice or of CY/IN treated mice than in animals not receiving IN. These results indicate that prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis in untreated mice and that prostaglandins may limit the hematopoietic recovery of CY treated mice.