Structural, spectroscopic, and theoretical comparison of traditional vs recently discovered Ln2+ ions in the [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][(C5H4SiMe3)3Ln] complexes: The variable nature of Dy2+ and Nd2+

Megan E. Fieser, Matthew R. Macdonald, Brandon T. Krull, Jefferson E. Bates, Joseph W. Ziller, Filipp Furche, William J. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Ln3+ and Ln2+ complexes, Cp′3Ln, 1, (Cp′ = C5H4SiMe3) and [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cp′3Ln], 2, respectively, have been synthesized for the six lanthanides traditionally known in +2 oxidation states, i.e., Ln = Eu, Yb, Sm, Tm, Dy, and Nd, to allow direct structural and spectroscopic comparison with the recently discovered Ln2+ ions of Ln = Pr, Gd, Tb, Ho, Y, Er, and Lu in 2. 2-La and 2-Ce were also prepared to allow the first comparison of all the lanthanides in the same coordination environment in both +2 and +3 oxidation states. 2-La and 2-Ce show the same unusual structural feature of the recently discovered +2 complexes, that the Ln-(Cp′ ring centroid) distances are only about 0.03 Å longer than in the +3 analogs, 1. The Eu, Yb, Sm, Tm, Dy, and Nd complexes were expected to show much larger differences, but this was observed for only four of these traditional six lanthanides. 2-Dy and 2-Nd are like the new nine ions in this tris(cyclopentadienyl) coordination geometry. A DFT-based model explains the results and shows that a 4fn5d1 electron configuration is appropriate not only for the nine recently discovered Ln2+ ions in 2 but also for Dy2+ and Nd2+, which traditionally have 4fn+1 electron configurations like Eu2+, Yb2+, Sm2+, and Tm2+. These results indicate that the ground state of a lanthanide ion in a molecule can be changed by the ligand set, a previously unknown option with these metals due to the limited radial extension of the 4f orbitals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-382
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume137
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 14 2015

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