Structures and properties of granules prepared by high shear wet granulation

Jiangnan Dun, Changquan Calvin Sun

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


High shear wet granulation (HSWG) is one of the most widely used processes employed to engineer powders before tableting. This chapter focuses on the evolution of granule structures and its connection to properties of granules prepared by HSWG. The discussion is centered on the material science tetrahedron, which emphasizes the importance of integrated materials science and engineering in solving problems in pharmaceutical product development and manufacturing. Practical topics, i.e., equipment suitable for batch and continuous HSWG processes and end point determination of HSWG, are discussed. The structural evolution of HSWG granules?nucleation, granule growth, and granule breakage?is examined. Influence of several material properties, including initial moisture content, and process parameters, such as massing time, and on the HSWG process is explained. Structural features of granules?surface smoothing, size enlargement, densification, and shape rounding?are discussed in connection with critical powder properties, such as flowability and tabletability. Clear understanding of the structure-property relationships lays a foundation for developing effective strategies to solve the problem of overgranulation and developing robust HSWG processes by formulation approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Pharmaceutical Wet Granulation
Subtitle of host publicationTheory and Practice in a Quality by Design Paradigm
Number of pages29
ISBN (Electronic)9780128104606
ISBN (Print)9780323481038
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Granule breakage
  • Granule growth
  • High shear wet granulation
  • Liquid binder
  • Massing
  • Materials science tetrahedron
  • Overgranulation
  • Powder flowability
  • Structure-properties relationship
  • Tabletability


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