Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a recognized complication of immune tolerance induction (ITI) therapy, a treatment strategy used to treat inhibitors in patients with hemophilia B receiving factor IX concentrate. Case diagnosis/treatment: We present a 4-year-old boy with hemophilia B and an inhibitor who underwent ITI, and developed NS 19 months into this therapy. A percutaneous renal biopsy was safely performed with factor IX (FIX) concentrate administration both preceding and following the procedure. The patient's inhibitor level had increased to 1.4-1.6 Bethesda Units just prior to the onset of proteinuria. Histology confirmed segmental membranous nephropathy (MGN). The patient was continued on FIX concentrate as ITI and also received 4 weekly doses of rituximab and ongoing immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil. This resulted in the complete resolution of his inhibitor and his NS. He continues with a modified ITI regimen and remains inhibitor-free without proteinuria >12 months post-biopsy. Conclusions: Hemophilia B patients undergoing ITI should be regularly screened for NS. At first detection of proteinuria, with proper precautions, a percutaneous kidney biopsy can be performed safely in patients with low levels of inhibitor. Our patient had segmental MGN with complete remission of NS.
- Factor IX
- Hemophilia B
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Segmental membranous nephropathy