Recently, Rowe and Aishwaryaprajna [FOGA 2019] introduced a simple majority vote technique that efficiently solves Jump with large gaps, OneMax with large noise, and any monotone function with a polynomial-size image. In this paper, we identify a pathological condition for this algorithm: the presence of spin-flip symmetry. Spin-flip symmetry is the invariance of a pseudo-Boolean function to complementation. Many important combinatorial optimization problems admit objective functions that exhibit this pathology, such as graph problems, Ising models, and variants of propositional satisfiability. We prove that no population size exists that allows the majority vote technique to solve spin-flip symmetric functions with reasonable probability. To remedy this, we introduce a symmetry-breaking technique that allows the majority vote algorithm to overcome this issue for many landscapes. We prove a sufficient condition for a spin-flip symmetric function to possess in order for the symmetry-breaking voting algorithm to succeed, and prove its efficiency on generalized TwoMax and families of constructed 3-NAE-SAT and 2-XOR-SAT formulas. We also prove that it fails on the one-dimensional Ising model, and suggest different techniques for overcoming this. Finally, we present empirical results that explore the tightness of the runtime bounds and the performance of the technique on randomized satisfiability variants.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization - 21st European Conference, EvoCOP 2021, Held as Part of EvoStar 2021, Proceedings|
|Editors||Christine Zarges, Sébastien Verel|
|Publisher||Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH|
|Number of pages||17|
|State||Published - 2021|
|Event||21st European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, EvoCOP 2021 Held as Part of EvoStar 2021 - Virtual, Online|
Duration: Apr 7 2021 → Apr 9 2021
|Name||Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)|
|Conference||21st European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, EvoCOP 2021 Held as Part of EvoStar 2021|
|Period||4/7/21 → 4/9/21|
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