Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a vesicle-localized integral membrane protein that senses the calcium ion (Ca2+) influx to trigger fast synchronous release of neurotransmitter. How the cytosolic domains of Syt I allosterically communicate to propagate the Ca2+ binding signal throughout the protein is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether the intrinsically disordered region (IDR) between Syt Is transmembrane helix and first C2 domain (C2A) plays an important role in allosteric modulation of Ca2+ binding. Moreover, the structural propensity of this IDR with respect to membrane lipid composition is unknown. Using differential scanning and isothermal titration calorimetry, we found that inclusion of the IDR does indeed allosterically modulate Ca2+ binding within the first C2 domain. Additionally through application of nuclear magnetic resonance, we found that Syt Is IDR interacts with membranes whose lipid composition mimics that of a synaptic vesicle. These findings not only indicate that Syt Is IDR plays a role in regulating Syt Is Ca2+ sensing but also indicate the IDR is exquisitely sensitive to the underlying membrane lipids. The latter observation suggests the IDR is a key route for communication of lipid organization to the adjacent C2 domains.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The material is based upon work supported by National Science Foundation CAREER Award Grant MCB-0845676 and Chancellors Small Grants (University of Minnesota Duluth) (both to A.H.).
© 2016 American Chemical Society.
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