It is well-known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the regulation of tumor growth and the efficacy of anti-tumor therapies. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of combination therapies, using oncolytic viruses (OVs) in conjunction with proteosome inhibitors for the treatment of glioblastoma, but the role of the TME in such therapies has not been studied. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model for combination therapies based on the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib and the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), with the goal of understanding their roles in bortezomib-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and how the balance between apoptosis and necroptosis is affected by the treatment protocol. We show that the TME plays a significant role in anti-tumor efficacy in OV combination therapy, and illustrate the effect of different spatial patterns of OV injection. The results illustrate a possible phenotypic switch within tumor populations in a given microenvironment, and suggest new anti-invasion therapies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This paper was supported by Konkuk University in 2016: 2016-A019-0137 (Yangjin Kim)†.
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ER stress
- Mathematical model
- Oncolytic virus