Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a naturally-occurring metabolite of NAD+ that is as effective as inositol trisphosphate in mobilizing intracellular Ca2+. A series of analogs modified at the 8-position of the adenine group were synthesized for the investigation of the relationship between the structure of the metabolite and its Ca2+-mobilizing activity. Substitution with an amino group at the 8-position of the adenine ring produced an antagonist. The 1H-NMR spectrum of 8-amino-cADPR showed characteristics of that of cADPR and confirmed the replacement of the 8-proton. By itself, 8-amino-cADPR (150 nM) did not induce Ca2+ release from sea-urchin-egg homogenates but totally blocked cADPR (135 nM) from doing so. The effect was reversible, since high concentrations of cADPR could overcome the inhibition. Addition of 8-amino-cADPR to egg homogenates during the cADPR-induced Ca2+ release blocked the release immediately, demonstrating the effectiveness of the antagonist. Measurements of [32P]cADPR binding to its microsomal binding site showed that 8-amino-cADPR was as effective as cADPR itself in competing for the binding site. In addition to blocking cADPR from releasing Ca2+, 8-amino-cADPR also inhibited cADPR from potentiating Ca2+-release induced by either divalent cations or by caffeine. Two other 8-substituted analogs were also synthesized. Both 8-Br- and 8-azido-cADPR were also antagonists, although with less potency than 8-amino-cADPR. These results show that alterations at the 8-position of the adenine group do not inhibit cADPR from binding to its receptor but do eliminate the ability of the metabolite to activate the Ca2+-release mechanism.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the mass spectrometry facility of the Department of Chemistry for mass determinations, Gerald Bratt and the Department of Biochemistry for providing the technical assistance and facility for the NMR study. We are also in debt to Mr. Robert Aarhus for technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from NIH (HD17484) to H.C.L. and Minnesota Medical Foundation to T.F.W.
- (S. purpuratus)
- (Sea urchin egg)
- 8-Amino-cyclic ADP-ribose
- Calcium ion mobilization
- Calcium ion release antagonist
- cyclic ADP-ribose